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Acute neuroinflammation increases excitability of prefrontal
AAV was used for the tracing of mPFC region. (From BrainVTA)
The viruses used in this article from BrainVTA are in the table below
Control  AAV-hSyn-DIO-EGFP
Xiao-Yi Feng, Hai-Dong Hu, Jian Chen, Cheng Long, Li Yang, Lei Wang
Pub Date: 2021-08-14, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.08.216, Email: [email protected]
There is an emerging body of literature suggesting that unlike the chronic neuroinflammatory response, acute neuroinflammation is self-regulated and is beneficial for central nervous system homeostasis and cognitive integrity. However, the neurophysiological alterations upon acute neuroinflammation and their implications on cognitive function remain poorly understood. In the present study, we reliably established a mouse model of acute and self-limiting neuroinflammation by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of low-dose lipopolysaccharide, which induced reversible sickness behavior and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). During acute neuroinflammation, fast-spiking parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV interneurons) in the mPFC exhibited a hyperexcitable phenotype exemplified by increased input resistance, decreased rheobase current, and a higher frequency of action potentials. Furthermore, PV interneurons in the prelimbic subregion of the mPFC were excessively recruited into circuits supporting novel object recognition memory, which remained intact after acute neuroinflammation. Together, our findings suggest that alterations in PV neuronal excitability resulting from acute neuroinflammation may mediate neuronal recruitment and confer a beneficial outcome on functional integrity of NOR circuit in the mPFC.

Figure 1. LPS treatment increased intrinsic excitability of PV interneurons selectively in the PrL.
Collectively, by advancing understanding of the impact of acute neuroinflammation at the neuronal, neural circuit and behavioral levels, this study supports the idea that the hyperexcitability of PV interneurons induced by acute neuroinflammation is a potential beneficial signature that is relevant to the intact memory in the NOR test.
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