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Prefrontal inhibition drives formation and dynamic expression
AAV-eNpHR3.0 and AAV-ChR2(H134R) were used for optogenetic manipulation. AAV- hM4D(Gi) were used for chemogenetics manipulation. AAV-GCaMp6s was used for fiber photometry experiment (From BrainVTA)
The viruses used in this article from BrainVTA are in the table below
Optogenetic  PT-0009 AAV2/9-CaMKIIa-eNpHR3.0-mCherry
 PT-0296 AAV2/9-CaMKIIa-ChR2(H134R)-eYFP
 PT-0007 AAV2/9-Ef1a-DIO-eNpHR3.0-mCherry
Chemogenetics  PT-0043 AAV2/9-Ef1a-DIO-hM4D(Gi)-mCherry
 PT-0815 AAV2/9-Ef1a-DIO-hM4D(Gi)-eYFP
 PT-0017 AAV2/9- CaMKIIa-hM4D(Gi)-mCherry
Calcium sensors  PT-0110 AAV2/9- CaMKIIa-GCaMP6s
CRE Recombinase  PT-0136 AAV2-Retro-hSyn-Cre
Control  PT-0290 AAV2/9-CaMKIIa-EGFP
 PT-0012 AAV2/9-Ef1a-DIO-eYFP
Rongzhen Yan, Tianyu Wang, Xiaoyan Ma, Xinyang Zhang, Rui Zheng, Qiang Zhou
Pub Date: 2021-08-10, DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109503, Email: [email protected]
The association between cause and effect is usually probabilistic. Memories triggered by ambiguous cues may be altered or biased into a more negative perception in psychiatric diseases. Understanding the formation and modulation of this probabilistic association is important for revealing the nature of aversive memory and alterations in brain diseases. We found that 50% conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (CS-US) association during Pavlovian fear conditioning results in reduced fear responses and neural spiking in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) due to enhanced inhibition from dmPFC parvalbumin (PV) neurons. Formation of probabilistic memory is associated with increased synaptic inputs to PV-neurons and requires activation of ventral hippocampus, which detects CS-US mismatch during conditioning. Stress prior to conditioning impairs the formation of probabilistic memory by abolishing PV-neuronal plasticity, while stress prior to memory retrieval reverts enhanced PV-neuron activity. In conclusion, PV-neurons tailor learned responses to fit brain state at the moment of retrieval.
The association between cause and effect is usually probabilistic. In this study, the authors find that probabilistic fear memory engages enhanced prefrontal inhibition to reduce an amygdala-based memory. PV-neuron activity and plasticity play central roles in this process and tailor learned responses to fit brain state at the moment of retrieval.
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