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A Central Amygdala-Substantia Innominata Neural Circuitry Enc
AAVs of tracing helper and RV were used for retrograde monosynaptic tracing. (From BrainVTA)
The viruses used from BrainVTA in this article are in the table below
Tracing Helper  AAV5-CAG-FLEX TVA66T-mCherry
Yuting Cui, Guanghui Lv, Sen Jin, Jie Peng,J ing Yuan, Xiaobin He, Hui Gong, Fuqiang Xu, Tonghui Xu, Haohong Li
Pub Date: 2017-11-14, DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.10.062, Email: [email protected]
Aversive stimuli can impact motivation and support associative learning as reinforcers. However, the neural circuitry underlying the processing of aversive reinforcers has not been elucidated. Here, we report that a subpopulation of central amygdala (CeA) GABAergic neurons expressing protein kinase C-delta (PKC-δ+) displays robust responses to aversive stimuli during negative reinforcement learning. Importantly, projections from PKC-δ+ neurons of the CeA to the substantia innominata (SI) could bi-directionally modulate negative reinforcement learning. Moreover, consistent with the idea that SI-projecting PKC-δ+ neurons of the CeA encode aversive information, optogenetic activation of this pathway produces conditioned place aversion, a behavior prevented by simultaneous ablating of SI glutamatergic neurons. Taken together, our data define a cell-type-specific neural circuitry modulating associative learning by encoding aversive reinforcement signals.

Figure 1. CeLPKC-d+ Neurons Project to the SI.
This study is aimed to explore the neural circuitry underlying the processing of aversive reinforcers. The authors investigated the role of CeLPKC-d+ and CeLSOM+ neurons in a go/no-go associative learning task. The data uncovered a previously unknown function of the CeLPKC-d+-SIVgluT2+ neural circuitry to modulate negative reinforcement learning by encoding aversive signals. 
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