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Projections from Infralimbic Cortex to Paraventricular Thalam
AAV- hM3D(Gq) and AAV- hM4D(Gi) were used for chemogenetics manipulation. (From BrainVTA)
The viruses used in this article from BrainVTA are in the table below
Chemogenetics  PT-0049 AVV2/9-CaMKIIa-hM3D(Gq)-mCherry-WPRE-pA
 PT-0017 AVV2/9-CaMKIIa-hM4D(Gi)-mCherry-WPRE-pA
Control  PT-0241 rAAV2/R-hsyn-EGFP-WPRE-pA  
Yan Tao, Cheng-Yun Cai, Jia-Yun Xian, Xiao-Lin Kou, Yu-Hui Lin, Cheng Qin, Hai-Yin Wu, Lei Chang, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
Pub Date: 2020-11-12, DOI: 10.1007/s12264-020-00603-6, Email: [email protected]
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), which serves as a hub, receives dense projections from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and projects to the lateral division of central amygdala (CeL). The infralimbic (IL) cortex plays a crucial role in encoding and recalling fear extinction memory. Here, we found that neurons in the PVT and IL were strongly activated during fear extinction retrieval. Silencing PVT neurons inhibited extinction retrieval at recent time point (24 h after extinction), while activating them promoted extinction retrieval at remote time point (7 d after extinction), suggesting a critical role of the PVT in extinction retrieval. In the mPFC-PVT circuit, projections from IL rather than prelimbic cortex to the PVT were dominant, and disrupting the IL-PVT projection suppressed extinction retrieval. Moreover, the axons of PVT neurons preferentially projected to the CeL. Silencing the PVT-CeL circuit also suppressed extinction retrieval. Together, our findings reveal a new neural circuit for fear extinction retrieval outside the classical IL-amygdala circuit.

Figure 1. The IL-PVT-CeL circuit regulates fear extinction retrieval.
This study is aimed to explore the role of the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) in extinction memory and the relationship between the PVT and the IL-amygdala circuit. The authors revealed an IL-PVT-CeL circuit for mediating extinction retrieval and provide new evidence for the existence of prefrontal-thalamic circuits for fear extinction.
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