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Locus Coeruleus to Paraventricular Thalamus Projections Facil
AAV-hM3Dq and AAV-hM4Di were used for chemogenetics manipulation, AAV-ChR2 was used for optogenetic manipulation (From BrainVTA)
The viruses used in this article from BrainVTA are in the table below
 Chemogenetics  PT-0019 AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry
 PT-0020 AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherry
 Optogenetic  PT-0001 AAV-EF1a-DIO-ChR2(H134R)-EYFP
 Control  PT-0012 AAV-EF1a-DIO-EYFP
Yawen Ao, Bo Yang, Caiju Zhang, Bo Wu, Xuefen Zhang, Dong Xing, Haibo Xu
Pub Date: 2021-03-23, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.643172, Email: [email protected]
Locus coeruleus (LC) sends widespread outputs to many brain regions to modulate diverse functions, including sleep/wake states, attention, and the general anesthetic state. The paraventricular thalamus (PVT) is a critical thalamic area for arousal and receives dense tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) inputs from the LC. Although anesthesia and sleep may share a common pathway, it is important to understand the processes underlying emergence from anesthesia. In this study, we hypothesize that LC TH neurons and the TH:LC-PVT circuit may be involved in regulating emergence from anesthesia. Only male mice are used in this study. Here, using c-Fos as a marker of neural activity, we identify LC TH expressing neurons are active during anesthesia emergence. Remarkably, chemogenetic activation of LC TH neurons shortens emergence time from anesthesia and promotes cortical arousal. Moreover, enhanced c-Fos expression is observed in the PVT after LC TH neurons activation. Optogenetic activation of the TH:LC-PVT projections accelerates emergence from anesthesia, whereas, chemogenetic inhibition of the TH:LC-PVT circuit prolongs time to wakefulness. Furthermore, optogenetic activation of the TH:LC-PVT projections produces electrophysiological evidence of arousal. Together, these results demonstrate that activation of the TH:LC-PVT projections is helpful in facilitating the transition from isoflurane anesthesia to an arousal state, which may provide a new strategy in shortening the emergence time after general anesthesia.

Figure 1. LC TH neurons activation facilitates emergence from anesthesia.
The locus coeruleus (LC) plays a critical role in core behavioural and physiological processes. The study is aimed to explore whether LC TH neurons participate in anesthesia arousal. Combining chemogenetics and optogenetic manipulation, the findings indicate that TH:LC-PVT pathway is involved in emergence from anesthesia, which may provide a new strategy in shortening the emergence time after general anesthesia.
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