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Cell type–differential modulation of prefrontal cortical GA
For optical tagging of PV- or SST-expressing INs, Cre- inducible AAV carrying ChR2-mCherry were used. hM4D(Gi) and hM3D(Gi) viruses were used for pharmacogenetic inhibition to selectively suppress the PV INs during social interaction test. (Some were packaged by BrainVTA)
The viruses used in this article are in the table below
Control  PT-0012 AAV-EF1a-DIO-EYFP
Optogenetic  PT-0002 AAV-EF1a-DIO-hChR2(H134R)-mCherry
Chemogenetics  PT-0020 AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM4D(Gi)-mCherry
 PT-0042 AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM3D(Gi)-mCherry
Pub Date: 2019-07-22, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay4073  Email: sales@brainvta.com
Ling Liu, Haifeng Xu, Jun Wang, Jie Li, Yuanyuan Tian, Junqiang Zheng, Miao He, Tian-Le Xu, Zhi-Ying Wu, Xiao-Ming Li, Shu-Min Duan, Han Xu
Prefrontal GABAergic interneurons (INs) are crucial for social behavior by maintaining excitation/inhibition balance. However, the underlying neuronal correlates and network computations are poorly understood. We identified distinct firing patterns of prefrontal parvalbumin (PV) INs and somatostatin (SST) INs upon social interaction. Moreover, social interaction closely correlated with elevated gamma rhythms particularly at low gamma band (20 to 50 Hz). Pharmacogenetic inhibition of PV INs, instead of SST INs, reduced low gamma power and impaired sociability. Optogenetic synchronization of either PV INs or SST INs at low gamma frequency improved sociability, whereas high gamma frequency or random frequency stimulation had no effect. These results reveal a functional differentiation among IN subtypes and suggest the importance of low gamma rhythms in social interaction behavior. Furthermore, our findings underscore previously unrecognized potential of SST INs as therapeutic targets for social impairments commonly observed in major neuropsychiatric disorders.

Fig.1 Optogenetic and chemogenetic manipulation for the underlying neuronal mechanisms in the control of social behaviors.
To understand the prefrontal neuronal and network mechanisms responsible for social interaction, the researchers used chronic single-unit recording with optogenetic-tagging technique, revealing that two major populations of prefrontal inhibitory GABAergic INs, PV INs and SST INs, regulate social behavior through low rather than high gamma rhythms.

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